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Cultural Property in Kurdish Language - Bahdini Journal

Academic Journal of Nawroz University (AJNU) (Issue : 2) (Volume : 7)
Language as a cultural property, it can be the reflection of cultural problems at the same time it could be a component of culture. Genderism is also one of the natural and social properties of humanity, that is why it should be mentioned as an important part in cultural and linguistic researches. The linguistic and genderism subject, determine the relationship between the language and its users opinions about males and females. Usually the physical properties of males and females have an effect on social opinions and they give different values to each and male and female genders, although the words ( male ) and ( female ) are used for biological differences between these two genders, sometimes these words are not used for biological differences but they are used to express the differences which are defined by community, it means for those aspects which are selected by community and the way that the community want them to act and these differences are mostly of cultural type. This research has tried to define genderism in Kurdish language_ Badinan dialect and talk about its genderism and non-genderism views. The research has been performed in the aspect of language and opinions on the basic of injustice in the language. This research also explain the effect of culture and community on the genderism.

The Use of Prototype Theory in The Kurdish Languages

Journal of University of Zakho (Issue : 2) (Volume : 5)
Prototype theory is a theory in categorical aspect and is used as a tool for explanation of how language categories are formed. In cognitive semantics categorization of language tools is counted as basic prototyping, that is why prototype, are tools for categorization. This research according to the basics of prototype theory and in general frame of cognitive semantics searches the (fruit) prototype in Duhok's students. The goal of this research is to determine the effect of different ages, geographic regions, economic conditions and... Etc. on the selected prototype. The type of this research is in fields, its way of performance is fielding and the data collection is by questionnaires. The samples are collected from fourth stage students, Kurdish language department of university of Zakho, high school students in Balqos village and Shinwar School in Duhok. The research hypotheses are about the effect of different ages, geographic regions, economic conditions and... etc. on the selected prototype.

Language attitudes and linguistic consciousness with Zakho University Students

journal of garmian university (Issue : 12) (Volume : 1)
Language planning (Plan of Language) consists of each sort of changes by country (government) or an organization which is supported by it, in the structure and usage of language, which is perform in the favor of changing linguistic behaviors of individual and social highlighted groups. This study entitled (Language attitudes and linguistic consciousness with Zakho University Students) attempts to demonstrate university students' linguistic consciousness on various Kurdish language levels (corpus, setting, status, and Learning), since, one of necessities of successful Language planning is to give importance to language attitudes of the language speakers. Hence, the obtained results could be taken into consideration in the planning. The study attempts to answer several questions, is the level of students' awareness for corpus, status, and language learning high or low? Are the student's feelings positive or negative for corpus, status, and language learning? Are the speakers ready to perform language manner? How is the student's linguistics consciousness? Is high or low? In this study, Students' awareness of corpus, status, and language learning is high leveled, their feelings are positive in terms of corpus, status, and language learning; accordingly, this is related to the speakers' behaviors.

Linguistic violence between student’s in preparatory school in Zakho city

Journal of University of Zakho (Issue : 1) (Volume : 5)
Linguistic violence in school consists of number of wrong speech between students themselves or between teacher and students. As a result, it may be lead to unexpected behavior. This research attempt to find the level of linguistic violence between student’s in preparatory school in Zakho city. In addition, to determine the factor and causes that led to this phenomenon. Moreover, the approach that determines the solutions and how to protect against this phenomenon. For a purpose, lower linguistic violence indoor school. This research includes tow hypotheses. The first one is about the existence of linguistic violence between student’s speech. The second hypothesis is about the relation between linguistic violence and gender. Collection of data were based on the distribution of questioner over students, and then collect and analysis them by (SPSS) program. Number of research sample was (253) students from male and female. The following statistical instrument were used 1/ one-way ANOVA 2/ t-test and 3/Likert measurement. The practical data from questioner are inserted to SPSS program. The data are analyzed statistically. The first hypothesis is accepted and one pivot from the second hypothesis is also accepted. And all other hypothesis is rejected at confidence level 0.05.

Critical Discourse Analysis Of Brayati Newspaper Based On Sociological Components –Van Leeuwen’s Semantics

Journal of University of Zakho (Issue : 3) (Volume : 4)
The concept of Discourse for its understanding is to be considered as an important topic In terms of Critical discourse analysis. Language is the holder of Ideology; ideology is embodied in behaviors and social practice by the help of Language. Therefore, we could identify the idea and ideology and of these writers’ texts through analyzing the given texts.Critical Discourse analysis is related to the linguistics criticism field. To highlight this point that the discourse is a meaningful part of language and it is the holder of targeting characteristics. The advantages are taken from the Van Leeuwen’s Semantics and Essential style of Sociology. The aims of this study is knowing the Brayati Newspaper’s Ideology, and for this purpose, (26) Volumes of Brayati Newspaper are taken. The important questions of this study are to know whether the newspaper has a specified ideology, and how it was indicated. It is to be concluded from the results of the taken samples’ analysis that there is a relationship between the conditions of the period during 11th March Treaty and the influential Article on the newspaper. Brayati Newspaper has a clear article in terms of feelings and power. The influential Article on the Brayati newspaper is a challenging against Iraqi Communist Party, it is the same article in which stands against the Central Bureau of that party.

The role of context in explaining relative meaning

ZANCO Journal of Humanity Sciences (Issue : 4) (Volume : 20)
Relative meaning is regarded as a kind of meaning . Relative meaning always has ambigious meaning and its meaning changes according to the person , time and place and so on. The present research (The role of context in explaining relative meaning ) consists of two chapters. The title of first chapter is relative meaning while the title of the second one is relative meaning and the context. This paper aims at explaining the relative meaning of words according to the context depending on descriptive analytical method. The researchers tries to know whether this type of meaning belongs to or relates to any kind of meaning and is this meaning can be analyzed pragmatically . The researchers reached many conclusions among them is that relative meaning is semantics one and relative meaning can be determinedpragmatically according to the non-linguistic context that the meaning used in.

The speech errors in Kurdish daily speech

ZANCO Journal of Humanity Sciences (Issue : 3) (Volume : 20)
Speech’s errors are the errors that can be committed by any person but don’t happen always. The rate of these errors is varied from one person to another according to some circumstances like anger, fear,fatigue….etc. The researcher tries to find out the model by which these errors are taken place and to know the mechanism and time of happening of these errors. The research entitled (The speech errors in Kurdish daily speech) tries to explain these errors among Kurdish speakers and determine its types and models. The research is descriptive one and based on the statistics model in explaining types and ratios of each speech error. The examples were taken from Badenan daily speech by listening to every day’s speech and to TV channels. The research has reached many results. Among them is that Errors happen according to certain rules and we can determine these rules. The ratio of syntax and semantic errors is %51.06,while the ratio of phonological errors is %34.39.

analysis of structure and structural grammar for folkloric stories of (Mirza Mahmud Nechirvan) according to actantial model of Algirdas J.Gremas)

UOD JOURNAL (Issue : 2) (Volume : 18)
Algirdas J.Gremas has explained the role of binary opposition narratives and stories, he has brought three binary oppositions which are able to determine role and job of every individuals in the narrative, and these binary oppositions composed of six actants : subject + object + destinateur + destintare + adjuvant + opposan. also he has talked about the role of plot in narrative and has determined three types of it which are performative, contractual, and disjunctional. In this research under the name of (analysis of structure and structural grammar for folkloric stories of (Mirza Mahmud Nechirvan) according to actantial model of Algirdas J.Gremas) has tried to explain Kurdish folkloric stories according to Gremas model and determined its grammar as well. Here we have tried to determine six actants as well as plot of story and answer these questions: 1. How Gremas model does work? 2. Can we explain Kurdish folkloric stories according to this model? 3. Is Mirza Mahmud Nechirvan's story is continuous and well organized? Analysis of Mirza Mahmud Nechirvan's story according Gremasactants are determined as there is tight relation between its component parts and it has an organized sequences, also Gremas model is a complete and well organized model that is why we can use it in Kurdish folkloric stories.

The Relationship Between the Phonological Awareness and The Degree of the Prosody Subject of Second Year Students in Kurdish Department/ University of Zakho

Journal of University of Zakho (Issue : 2) (Volume : 3)
This study is conducted to show the relationship between the ability of phonology with the degree of the intonation subject of the students of second stage in the department of Kurdish language/ University of Zakho. The study contains three main hypotheses and two sub one. According to the first hypothesis there is a straight relationship between the degree of phonology and intonation. And regarding the second hypothesis phonology’s ability has effect on intonation subject. The second hypothesis is divided into three sub points of (the effect of classification, manipulating and combining have on intonation. The data were analysed through the use of SPSS program, and all the hypothesis were ensured, the results showed that the phonology’s ability have relationship and effects on the intonation degree. Moreover, among the Classification were revealed to be the first factor that affects this relationship.

Voice Structure used in Advertisements

Journal of University of Zakho (Issue : 1) (Volume : 3)
The research is about the voice structure used in advertisings, means it searches for that voice arts used in Kurdish advertisings and how by this they try to make persuasion which means the research is on phonologic level of advertisings. This research in general has been done according on the descriptive and analytical approach.For doing this research the researcher has put a hypothesis which is a parallelism and deviation and are known as two techniques for foregrounding of daily speech and avoiding automatic language (poetic function) have Kurdish advertising used this two techniques or not? If the answer is yes, the average of each is how much? The researcher has tied to prove it by static. At the end the researcher has found that in about 75% poetic function is used and of this 92% is parallelism and 35% is deviation, and this indicate that in Kurdish advertisings they given importance in giving them musical form. Parallelism has made by repeating compared to deviation which need more specialty

Stylistics of story based on verb: a Functional Approach

Humanities& social sciences(UOD JOURNAL) (Issue : 1) (Volume : 16)
In Functional Grammar, hypothesis refers to experimental models within the framework of processes, reflecting an ideational function in language. Hence, with accordance to types of processes as well as frequency and enumeration, experiences and ideas of the writer are shown. This can be achieved by way of experimental metafunctions through transitivity, which is a mechanism of expressing these functions. The current study, which is entitled “Stylistics of story based on verb: a Functional Approach”, tackles the style and model of two stories, Deho was a Naughty Boy by Younis Ahmed and The Dying Dance by Bave Naze. This is fulfilled by the transitivity system within the framework of Halliday’s Function Grammar. For the accomplishment of the study, researchers put a hypothesis. They hypothesize that reality in both stories is given much importance, using the same style and model. They also tried to prove the fact of being true or not. Finally, researchers came to a conclusion that in The Dying Dance much importance is given to reality, which is like an individual having attention in the society. In contrast, in Deho was a Naughty Boy, focus is put on specific behavior of the individuals in the society. In other words the two story writers show different styles.

A Semiotic Analysis of Commercial Advertisements (According to Judith williamson’s views)

Journal of University of Zakho (Issue : 2) (Volume : 2)
Text consists of some levels and maybe some of them be more fundamental than the others, but all of them can have same effect. Sense, is the product that lay between the text levels, prior knowledge, signs…etc, that is why every linguistic or non-linguistic signs in a relationship are meaningful. In this ay the researcher has tried according to theory and idea of (Judith williamson), talk about Semiotics role in clarifying the idea hidden behind the printed commercials and showing why in this commercials they display (person, things and objects) with their items? The researcher has answered this role by some examples which are for giving the items some traits of this (person, things and objects).

The Assessment of the English Books Content for the Preparatory Fourth and Fifth Grades According to Fog's Equation and the Evaluation of English Teachers in Zakho City

Journal of University of Zakho (Issue : 1) (Volume : 2)
It has been noticed that many education programs and teaching syllabi do not reflect our modern life requirements educationally and socially. This leads to learners' failure in the teaching process. That is why, if these teaching programs and syllabi, especially books, are evaluated and assessed and their advantages and disadvantages are shown, the educational system in our country will step forward and develop well. The present study, titled "The Assessment of the English Books Content for the Preparatory Fourth and Fifth Grades According to Fog's Equation and the Evaluation of English Teachers in Zakho City", tries to evaluate the content of English books, taking the English teachers' opinions into consideration. The total number of teachers who answered the questions in a previously prepared questionnaire was 52. The results of study were achieved through content analysis method, using T and F statistics and multiple comparison correlations.

The Classification of Binomial Pairs in Kurdish: Bahdini Area as a Sample

UOD JOURNAL (Issue : 1) (Volume : 3)
ample”, sheds light on binomials semantically. Following descriptive analytical methods, the researcher studies the influence of linguistic factors in arranging and classifying binomials. The researcher puts two hypotheses: (1) Do the semantic and rhythmic factors affect on binomial pairs?; (2) Do the cultural and social factors have any effect o binomial pairs? Here, according to the linguistic levels, the researcher tries to prove whether such pairs are effective or not. Finally, the researcher comes to a conclusion that all the semantic, rhythmic, cultural and social factors actually do have influence on structural binomial pairs.

The evaluation and description of the writing mistakes in four gradesof elementary schools

Nûbihar Akademî (Issue : 2) (Volume : 1)
The research tackles to study spelling mistakes of the primary fourth grade pupils from a linguistic perspective, as well as, explaining and classifying these mistakes according to descriptive method. Generally, the study is performed on the basis of the following questions: is the main reason for the spelling mistakes of the fourth grade students of primary, linguistic or non-linguistic? To which linguistic level (word or sequence linking words), goes back majority percentage of the spelling mistakes of the fourth grade pupils of primary? To which type of mistakes, (sensitiveness of hearing, teaching, accuracy, sensitiveness of seeing, unusual writing, upside down writing, vision sequence memory, or illiteracy), goes back majority spelling mistakes of fourth grade pupils of primary? Following points have been taken into consideration while collecting data from pupils: All the chosen children were of normal sense; the school is chosen carefully; their mother language is Kurdish and they are all monolingual; they were all chosen from fourth grade of primary, i.e. their ages ranging 1011- years old. Regarding the content of the study, the first part was devoted to theoretical scope of the study. The problem of learning spelling consists of having difficulty in writing and linking the alphabetical letters in a specific word in the right way. This problem occurs might be because the weakness of vision or hearing, environmental factors, lack of motivation, as well as, existence of phonological problems...etc.. These mistakes can be divided into following: wrong replacement of letters (because of their shape); forgetting the letters; forgetting letters which compose the words; because of hearing problems; forgetting letters that composes the word; because of misunderstanding sounds; wrong replacement of letters; as a result of misunderstanding sounds; wrong replacement of letters instead of each other as a result of replacement process; forgetting full stops; not putting full stops as a result of not recognizing the letters correctly; forgetting apostrophe. The second part of this study classifies spelling mistakes of primary fourth grade pupils. After classifying and explaining spellings of primary fourth grade pupils and comparing them on both levels, word and sequence linking words, the Researchers found that the majority mistakes were on word level: out of 373 students, while %73 (274) of them made spelling mistakes at the level of word, another %27 (99) of them made mistakes for sequence linking words. Mistakes of learners were divided into nine types: some of them are sensitiveness of hearing, teaching, accuracy, sensitiveness of vision, vision sequence memory and illiteracy. After this attempt their research was accepted. It became clear that mistakes related with sensitiveness of hearing come at first place with average (27%) ,and mistakes related with teaching type and those unreadable dictations take second place with average (24%). As indicated in the following sentence, spelling mistakes and their ratios are: sensitiveness of hearing is %27 (102); teaching %24 (90); accuracy %7 (27); sensitiveness of vision %8 (29); vision sequence memory %6 (24); illiteracy %24 (90); others %4 (15). This Study concludes that linguistic factors are the main reason behind the majority of spelling mistakes of the primary fourth grade pupils . The majority percentage of this mistakes go back to linguistic level of the word which estimated (73%).Mistakes related with sensitiveness of hearing come at first place with average (27%),and mistakes related with teaching type and those unreadable dictation come in the second place with average (24%).

grammatical-discourse analysis to the story of "Meriba ye Aghay- Tenant of land lord -" on the macro-micro levels

Journal of the Kurdish Academy (Issue : 11) (Volume : 11)
This paper deals with a grammatical-discourse analysis to the story of "Meriba ye Aghay- Tenant of land lord -" on the macro-micro levels in an attempt to deal with the inter-text's cohesion factors on such levels. The study is performed according to the theories of Mac Halliday, the famous linguist. However, a full statistics to cohesion factors is taken into consideration, which is shown on the text's macro-level, duly, taking reference over macro-level and lexical cohesions, resulting in (total score of reference and lexical) 69.8% out of the inter-text's cohesion. In the micro-level, the ratio of noun-clauses is 62.8%, the verbal clauses 80.7%, and datum verbs 99.1%. These ratios harmonize with the vernacular daily language though the usage of simple sentences which rated 70.7% do not harmonize with the daily language, hence the ratio 70.7% with the other ratios create cohesion in a given text.