Evaluation of Two Kurdistan-Iraq Crude Oil (T-21A, PF2) by Derivatographic Method
International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry (Issue : 4) (Volume : 21)
Evaluation of crude oil and its residue using derivatography, is one of the most common physical and chemical methods analytical research. Crude oil residues 350+ obtain from two Iraq-Kurdistan crudes (Tawke T-21A well and Shekhan PF2 well) by using atmospheric distillation after removing all volatile fractions. The sample characterized by direvatographic method. The thermo analysis, reactions were carried out at temperature range 20- 700℃ for reaction time 68 min. These derivatograph curves show the weight change and heat energy (Enthalpy) change as the function of time and temperature. It shows that the crude oil residues have different composition. The curve which marks the weight changes of the sample heated is the thermogravimetric curve, TGA. Whereas the curve, which records heat energy or enthalpy changes during thermal decomposition is the DTA or differential thermoanalytic. By means of the derivatograph, it is possible to record simultaneously curve of weight change (TG), and enthalpy change (DTA) as a function of temperature. This method analysis shows good evaluation of these two crude oil well.
Synthesis of Bimetallic Catalysts on the Basis of Y Type Zeolite
Sjuoz (Issue : 1) (Volume : 8)
In this work, it is shown that based on powder zeolite type Y, mono metallic and bimetallic catalysts have been developed that are promising for petroleum chemistry processes. The method is based on the preparing hydrogen form of Y zeolite by ion exchange with a solution of ammonium nitrate at a starting concentration of 70 g.l-1 and nickel nitrate solution which provides Ni cations. Then after preparation of bimetallic catalysts by impregnating second metal by incipient wetness. All samples and catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis techniques, adsorption methods, and elemental analysis. The research results showed that in order to reach the degree of exchange of Na+ for H+ cations no less than 0.73, it is necessary to carry out four exchanges of Na+ by NH4+ and three intermediate thermal treatments at 540 °C for 3 to 4 hours in air atmosphere.
Isomerization of n-Hexane on Binder-Free Shaped Platinum Containing Mordenite
Petroleum Chemistry (Issue : 1) (Volume : 56)
A catalyst has been prepared as binder-free shaped MOR-type zeolite in the H form promoted with 0.5 wt % platinum, and n-hexane conversion over this catalyst has been studied. It has been found that the selectivity for C4–C6 isoparaffins on the new catalyst is about 90% at 300°C, a feed space velocity of 1.5 h–1, and a hydrogen pressure of 3 MPa, with the hexane conversion being 80.0–83.0 wt % and the selectivity for isohexane making 83.0–86.0%. It has been shown that the new catalyst is stable for 50 h on-stream under these conditions.
Influence of synthesis conditions on the adsorption and catalytic properties of mordenite zeolite
Petroleum Chemistry (Issue : 2) (Volume : 54)
The effect of the preliminary holding of the BS-100 “white soot” at 150–155°C for 6 to 7 h and the crystallization conditions on both the characteristics of powdered MOR zeolite samples (degree of crystallinity, composition, particle size composition, and adsorption of C6H6 molecules) and their catalytic properties in the α-methylstyrene dimerization reaction has been studied.
Improvement of synthesis methods of powdery mordenite type zeolite
Electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business (Issue : 2) (Volume : 2)
For the first time the synthesis method of powdery mordenite type zeolite
based on crystallization of metakaolin in sodium silicate solution at temperature 150 °C
for 14 hours is developed. The zeolite having 100 % crystallinity degree crystallized from the
reaction mixture (RM) with the composition 2,9Na2О ∙ Аl2О3 ∙ 12SiО2 ∙ 300H2O. Previously 10
wt. % crystal seed was introduced in RM, crystallization was carried out under continuous stirring.
Implementation of the developed method allows to extend the raw materials base, simplify
the synthesis and reduce the cost of powdery mordenite type zeolite.
Synthesis and Properties Exchange Forms of Granulated Binder-free Zeolite X
International Journal of Materials Engineering (Issue : 6) (Volume : 2)
Samples of crystalline aluminosilicate, the granules of which are crystalline aggregates of zeolite X with
different degrees of exchange of cations Na+ for cations Ca2+, Mg2+, К+ or Н+ were synthesized. Based on obtained samples,
the adsorption of Н2О, СО2, С6Н6 and n-С7Н16 in static and dynamic modes is studied. The dependencies of the amount of
adsorbed substance on the type and content of exchangeable cations in zeolite X were found.
Production of activated carbon by grafting of lignin with oxidized asphalt via fused carbonization and chemical activation
National Journal of Chemistry (Volume : 31)
In this research work we aimed to graft lignin which a naturally oxygenated
compound with different ratio of oxidized asphalt (contains synthetic oxygenated
groups). Grafting aimed to allow the two type of the functional groups to react in the
presence of small amount of base. The process conducted at 300 oC in the absence of
air. Carbonization of the mixture was carried out in the presence of twice the amount
of sodium hydroxide and at a temperature of 450-500 oC till no more gases evolved.
The product carbon was activated by refluxing with 30% HCl. Evaluation of the
activated carbon was conducted by adsorption of iodine and methylene blue. Other
variables such as density, humidity, ash and surface area were also determined.