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Published Journal Articles

2021

Cetane Number Improvement of Distilled Diesel from Tawke Wells

2021-05
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research (Issue : 3) (Volume : 11)
Abstract-The current research aims to improve the cetane number of diesel extracted from the crude oil of Tawke region- Iraq Kurdistan. A specific mixture of chemical compounds was prepared which included m-nitrophenol, 4-nitro toluene, and nitrobenzene. The components' effects were investigated with regard to the cetane number, flash point, viscosity, and refractive index of diesel. The quantity of each compound mixed with diesel was prepared based on the statistical analysis of the experiment device (Box–Behnken Designs-BBDs). The tested mixture showed a good agreement and improvement of cetane and flash point and a very low effect on viscosity and refractive index. According to the statistical analysis, the main influence on cetane number and the flashpoint was from m-nitrophenol. The investigation showed that the best results were acquired from the samples of 25PPM 4- nitro toluene and 50PPM m-nitrophenol with a cetane number of 65.3. The correlation and the interaction of the regression equation were linear with all cases. It is worth mentioning that all additives positively influenced the cetane number in the regression equation. The sulfur content was measured as well, and the obtained weight percentage of sulfur was 0.8404%.

Simulation Study of Utilizing X-ray Tube in Monitoring Systems of Liquid Petroleum Products

2021-05
Processes (Issue : 5) (Volume : 9)
Radiation-based instruments have been widely used in petrochemical and oil industries to monitor liquid products transported through the same pipeline. Different radioactive gamma-ray emitter sources are typically used as radiation generators in the instruments mentioned above. The idea at the basis of this research is to investigate the use of an X-ray tube rather than a radioisotope source as an X-ray generator: This choice brings some advantages that will be discussed. The study is performed through a Monte Carlo simulation and artificial intelligence. Here, the system is composed of an X-ray tube, a pipe including fluid, and a NaI detector. Two-by-two mixtures of four various oil products with different volume ratios were considered to model the pipe’s interface region. For each combination, the X-ray spectrum was recorded in the detector in all the simulations. The recorded spectra were used for training and testing the multilayer perceptron (MLP) models. After training, MLP neural networks could estimate each oil product’s volume ratio with a mean absolute error of 2.72 which is slightly even better than what was obtained in former studies using radioisotope sources

Flow Patterns of Oil-Gas and Pressure Gradients in Near-Horizontal Flow Pipeline: Experimental Investigation Using Differential Pressure Transducers

2021-04
International Journal of Heat and Technology (Volume : 39)
The current investigation aimed to identify pressure gradients and to study the fully developed flow patterns of oil-gas as a blend in a pipe of internal diameter 50 mm and 6 m length with different orientations of 0, 30, and 45-degree. The study was performed at constant values of liquid superficial velocities 0.052, 0.157, 0.262, 0.314, 0.419, and 0.524 m/s, and inlet superficial velocities of gas were ranged from 0.05 to 4.7 m/s at atmospheric pressure. Two pressure transducers located up and downstream were used to measure pressure drops inside the tested pipe. Flow patterns were derived by using the correlation between pressure gradients and time series, the Probability Density Function of differential pressures, pressure gradients with gas superficial velocities, and total pressure losses with mean void fractions. The flow patterns of oil-gas were observed as a uniform stratified flow in the pipe on a 0-degree orientation at various superficial velocities. Stratified, wavy, and slug flow patterns were observed at 30-degree orientation, whereas, bubbly, slug, and churn flow patterns were observed in the pipe of 45-degree orientation. The experiment also showed that pressure drop gradients decreased with increased void fractions, gas superficial velocities, and degree rotations of the flow lines. Finally, the validation of using pressure transducers as a technique for estimating the flow patterns of two-phase flow showed acceptable results with some kind of patterns

Feasibility Study of Using X-ray Tube and GMDH for Measuring Volume Fractions of Annular and Stratified Regimes in Three-Phase Flows

2021-04
Symmetry (Issue : 4) (Volume : 13)
In this paper, the feasibility of using an X-ray tube instead of radioisotope sources for measuring volume fractions of gas, oil, and water in two typical flow regimes of three-phase flows, namely, annular and stratified, is evaluated. This study’s proposed detection system is composed of an X-ray tube, a 1 inch  1 inch NaI detector, and one Pyrex-glass pipe to model different volume fractions for two flow regimes, annular and stratified. Group method of data handling (GMDH), a powerful regression tool, was also implemented to analyze the obtained data. The obtained results in this work indicate that a simple system based on an X-ray tube and just one NaI detector could be a potential alternative to radioisotope-based systems for separate measurements of gas, oil, and water volume fractions in annular and stratified flow regimes of a three-phase flow

Experimental investigation of the characteristics of the transition from spherical cap bubble to slug flow in a vertical pipe

2021-01
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science (Issue : 0) (Volume : 124)
Reliable and accurate prediction of the transition from spherical cap bubble to slug flow is crucial not only to the operation of industrial facilities such as the crude oil pipelines, bubble column, and nuclear reactors but also for model development for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. The present paper presents a review of the transition mechanics from spherical cap bubble flow to slug flow in vertical pipes. The bubble flow was split into sub-regions, bubbles and spherical cap bubbles and the mechanisms to classify them (i.e., bubble terminal velocity and cap bubble velocity) was analysed. For now, the literature review does not present some important previous works. This paper presents an original data set of gas–silicone oil in vertical pipes to support the new findings. The experimental two-phase data classifies the flow patterns using the probability density function (PDF) and shows the important flow variables such as average void fraction, pressure gradient, slug body void fraction, liquid slug, Taylor bubble and slug unit lengths, structural velocity and frequency obtained by electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and a wire mesh sensor (WMS).
2020

Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Patterns in aVertical to Horizontal Bend Pipe Using Wire-Mesh Sensor

2020-12
Revista de Chimie (Issue : 12) (Volume : 71)
The air-water two-phase flow plays an important role in many applications of industry fields. Usually, a 90-degree bend is used to connect pipes for changing the direction of flow which influences the two-phase flow pattern. In this paper, the effect of 90-degree bend under different ranges of gas and liquid superficial velocities on the two-phase flow patterns in the horizontal pipe located after the bend was experimentally investigated, and then results were presented and compared in a two-phaseflow pattern map. Also, tomographic images and probability density functions were used to capture the cross-section void fraction and its distribution for the two-phase flow patterns. The results revealed that at low liquid and gas flow rates, a stratified-wavy flow pattern was observed as a dominant flow pattern. While the wavy-annular and semiannular flow patterns were observed at a high range of gas flow rates in the horizontal pipe. The results also showed that at the high range of liquid flow rate, bubbly, plug, slug, stratified-wavy, and wavy-annular flow patterns were observed in the horizontal pipe when the gas flow increased. The tomographic images and probability density functions gave good agreement with the experimental observations and results

Insights into the transition from plug to slug flow in a horizontal pipe: An experimental study

2020-11
Chemical Engineering Research and Design (Volume : 163)
A thorough understanding of the behaviour of the transition from plug to slug flow is imperative based on the fact that the transition can trigger an abrupt radial pressure variation. This can bring about major vibrations to the pipeline and also lead to big differences in pressure gradient and wall temperature. Unfortunately, the transition from plug to slug flow is poorly understood due to the scarce availability of experimental data. Furthermore, a considerable amount of research on the transition from plug to slug flow in the literature is based on an air–water system. In this work, the transition behaviour from plug to slug flow in a horizontal pipeline was experimentally investigated using electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). Working fluids are air–silicone oil. The work was carried out over a range of liquid and gas superficial velocities of 0.05–0.47 m/s and 0.05–4.7 m/s, respectively. Wave growth and wave characteristics mechanisms were observed to be responsible for the transition from plug to slug flow based on the obtained experimental results. Both liquid and gas superficial velocities have a major influence also on these mechanisms. The drift flux parameters for the transition from plug to slug flow was determined. A reasonably good agreement was observed from the comparison between present experimental data against hitherto published empirical models and correlations

Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Bubble Charac-teristics in Small Bubble Column using Electrical Capacitance Tomography

2020-09
REVISTA DE CHIMIE (Issue : 9) (Volume : 71)
The present study has been carried out to investigate the characterization of two-phase flow bubbles that occurred in a column of an internal diameter 50 mm, where the liquid phase is represented in Silicone oil. The effectiveness of the tomography technique regarding the flow patterns analysis is studied as well as, high-speed videos were captured and used in the study. The void fractions of the time series were obtained at different flow rates were considered, and the results were analyzed also by using Probability Density Functions (PDF), film thickness, velocity structure, and Power Spectrum Density (PSD). To obtain the structure velocity, two tomography capacitance sensors were utilized so as to do cross-correlation, besides, the obtained videos were considered also to show the different bubble characteristics. A comparison was assessed between the previously available works of literature with the present study to evaluate the results. It was observed from the obtained tomography images that the flow was in the slug flow region explained by the presence of large bullet-shaped bubbles and the bubble characteristics obtained were comparable to that observed in other viscous liquids. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) was quite effective in investigating the flow.

Preparation of Clay Catalyst from Natural Clay and its uses in Desulfurization of Crude Oil

2020-08
International Journal of Engineering and Science Invention (Issue : 8) (Volume : 9)
This study explores the utilization of red soil and Kaolin clay in abstracting sulfur from the crude oil extracted from Qadia and Tawke fields in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Identification of Oil-Gas Two Phase Flow in Vertical pipe using Advanced Measurement Techniques

2020-07
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research (Issue : 5) (Volume : 10)
The identification and characteristics of flow configurations in pipes are very important in oil industry due to its role in governing equipment design. In vertical riser many flow configurations could be observed such as bubbly, slug, churn, and annular flow. In this project, two tomographic techniques have been applied simultaneously to the flow in vertical riser; an Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) system and Capacitance Wire Mesh Sensor (WMS) system. The pipe diameter employed was 50 mm, investigation of research is carried out between 0.06 - 3.0 m/s for superficial velocities for gas and from 0.06 m/s to 0.4 m/s for oil. Several techniques have been used for analysis output data of two tomography techniques such as Time Series of Cross-Sectional Averaged void fraction, Probability Density Functions (PDF), Image Reconstruction, and Liquid hold up Profile. The averaged void fractions were calculated from the output signal of the two measurements techniques and plotted as function of superficial velocity of gas; from the PDF of the averaged void fraction the flow patterns such as bubbly, slug and churn flows were identified. In addition, it was found that two tomographic techniques are reliable to identify the flow regimes in pipes

Roll of stenosis severity, artery radius and blood fluid behavior on the flow velocity in the arteries: Application in biomedical engineering

2020-05
Medical Hypotheses (Volume : 144)
In the current study, an experimental study was carried out on the rheological properties of hybrid non-Newtonian nanofluid (MWCNTs–ZnO/Water–Ethylene glycol (80:20 vol.%)) to develop a new model. The viscosities of nanofluid were evaluated in the temperature range of 25–50 °C with volume fractions of φ = 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, and 1.2%. We find that the effect of changes is more obvious when the φ is increased. So the property of non-Newtonian nanofluid is more likely to appear. In addition to a temperature of 25 °C, the viscosity increase from a φ = 0% to 1.2% is higher than 90%, which is very significant. Also, in the maximum φ, at T = 50 °C, 40 °C and 30 °C, the viscosity reduction is 21%, 17%, and 8%, respectively, relative to the reference temperature (25 °C). The above results can be of great help to engineers in designing thermal systems to increase heat transfer and considering pumping power

The rheological behavior of MWCNTs–ZnO/Water–Ethylene glycol hybrid non-Newtonian nanofluid by using of an experimental investigation

2020-05
Journal of Materials Research and Technology (Issue : 4) (Volume : 9)
New data for pressure drop, void fraction and flow pattern in a vertical riser using air–silicone oil as the system fluid are reported in this work. A differential pressure cell (DP cell) was used to measure the pressure drop. Also, void fraction data were recorded simultaneously by an electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and wire mesh sensor (WMS). The observed flow patterns are the spherical cap bubble, slug and churn flows. However, only the slug flow without the presence of churn flow is seen within the transition line as predicted by the map. The characteristic probability density function (PDF) derived from void fraction data was used to determine the flow patterns. A comparison between present experimental results and the air–water data reported in the literature was carried out and various levels of agreement were achieved. The PDFs obtained from the DP cell signals for spherical cap bubble and slug flows significantly differ from those derived from the ECT and WMS outputs. Current void fraction and pressure gradient results were compared with the values predicted by ten In the current study, an experimental study was carried out on the rheological properties of hybrid non-Newtonian nanofluid (MWCNTs–ZnO/Water–Ethylene glycol (80:20 vol.%)) to develop a new model. The viscosities of nanofluid were evaluated in the temperature range of 25–50 °C with volume fractions of φ = 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, and 1.2%. We find that the effect of changes is more obvious when the φ is increased. So the property of non-Newtonian nanofluid is more likely to appear. In addition to a temperature of 25 °C, the viscosity increase from a φ = 0% to 1.2% is higher than 90%, which is very significant. Also, in the maximum φ, at T = 50 °C, 40 °C and 30 °C, the viscosity reduction is 21%, 17%, and 8%, respectively, relative to the reference temperature (25 °C). The above results can be of great help to engineers in designing thermal systems to increase heat transfer and considering pumping power

Pressure drop, void fraction and flow pattern of vertical air–silicone oil flows using differential pressure transducer and advanced instrumentation

2020-05
Medical Hypotheses (Volume : 144)
New data for pressure drop, void fraction and flow pattern in a vertical riser using air–silicone oil as the system fluid are reported in this work. A differential pressure cell (DP cell) was used to measure the pressure drop. Also, void fraction data were recorded simultaneously by an electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and wire mesh sensor (WMS). The observed flow patterns are the spherical cap bubble, slug and churn flows. However, only the slug flow without the presence of churn flow is seen within the transition line as predicted by the map. The characteristic probability density function (PDF) derived from void fraction data was used to determine the flow patterns. A comparison between present experimental results and the air–water data reported in the literature was carried out and various levels of agreement were achieved. The PDFs obtained from the DP cell signals for spherical cap bubble and slug flows significantly differ from those derived from the ECT and WMS outputs. Current void fraction and pressure gradient results were compared with the values predicted by ten empirical correlations selected from the literature. Statistical tools such as Mean Square Error (MSE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) were applied in the comparison. The Greskovich and Cooper correlation gave the least MSE, RMSE and MAPE values of 0.0007908, 0.013 and 3.05%, respectively for slug flow

Removal Of Sulphur From Crude Oil In Zakho District North Iraq

2020-03
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH (Issue : 3) (Volume : 9)
n this study, the sulfur content of crude oil and exported product from Zakho oil fields of Tawke and Qadia, in Kurdistan region of Iraq was studied. The following devices were used; Stanhope-seta (salt in crude oil), centrifuge for Bs&w, Anton par for specific gravity and density, parch method for H2S by nitrogen. Three samples of oil exported abroad were examined and evaluated at a laboratory Institute of fluid dynamics in Germany, for sulfur content and gravity. Several experiments have been conducted to determine the values of sulfur content in oil and some other characteristics related to the above mentioned oils as well as comparing them to global oils and trying to find new and inexpensive ways to reduce and eliminate the sulphur from crude oil.
2019

Surface and Deep Soil 222Rn Gas Exhalation Comparison: A Case Study in Tawke, Duhok, Northern Iraq

2019-10
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research (Issue : 5) (Volume : 9)
abstract

Experimental Study of the Two-Phase Flow Patterns of Air-Water Mixture at Vertical Bend Inlet and Outlet

2019-10
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research (Issue : 5) (Volume : 9)
Air-water two-phase flow in pipes introduces a noticeable challenge due to the complexity of the fluids.
2018

Semi Cylindrical Non-Tactile Capacitive Sensor: Equipotential Contour and Electrical Field Analysis

2018-10
IEEE explore (Issue : 2) (Volume : 3)
done

Experimental study of viscous effects on flow pattern and bubble behavior in small diameter bubble column

2018-09
Physics of Fluids (Issue : 9) (Volume : 30)
done
2017

The control and maintenance of desired flow patterns in bends of different orientations

2017-12
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation (Volume : 53)
done

Identification of Oil-Gas Two Phase Flow in Vertical Pipes using Tomography Techniques

2017-03
International Journal of Arts & Sciences
done

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