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Published Journal Articles


Incidence and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from urinary tract infection patients in Zakho emergency hospital / Iraq

Uropathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered the most important causes of urinary tract infection, and recently the antibiotic resistance of this pathogen has increased dramatically. The study aims at investigating the prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of uropathogenic K. pneumoniae among different ages of groups at both genders. 1737 urine specimens were collected from individuals admitted to Zakho emergency hospital from January 2016 until December 2018. K. pneumoniae was identified based on Gram stain, colony characteristics and biochemical tests, and then it was tested for their antibiotic sensitivity. Out of all samples, 1076 (61.9%) showed significant bacterial yield. The UTIs among females (64.3%) were statistically higher than males (46.5%) (P<0.001). The age group of 20-29 years was highly susceptible to UTIs (43%). Among the total UTIs, K. pneumoniae represented 16.2%. K. pneumoniae in males (23.4%)was significantly higher than females (15.4%) (P=0.03).The age group 40-49 years (32.2%) was the highest group that at risk for K. pneumoniae infection. K. pneumoniae was highly susceptible to imipenem (100%) and was highly resistant against cephalothin (90.8%). A high prevalence of UTIs were observed among the age group of 20-29 years and the females had more risk of having UTIs. The males were more susceptible to K. pneumoniae with higher prevalence in the age group of 40-49 years. K. pneumoniae showed high sensitivity toward imipenem and high resistance to cephalothin. More awareness is required in all healthcare sectors for regular surveillance of the use of antimicrobial agents to reduce the resistance rates and to eradicate the pathogens.

Present status of Salmonella Typhi in different age groups hospitalized patients in Duhok City, Iraq.

ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (Issue : 6) (Volume : 31)
Typhoid fever is still recognized as one of the most important global health problem. Salmonella species are the main cause of typhoid fever that causes health threat in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence and the risk factors of Salmonella Typhi from people presenting with fever to Azadi general hospital, Duhok, Iraq. A total of 2323 patient blood samples (992 males and 1331 females) were collected through the period January 2017 to December 2017. Serologic-proved typhoid fever for Salmonella Typhi was diagnosed by Widal test. Out of 2323 blood samples, 824 (35.47%) were diagnosed as serologic-proved typhoid fever. The highest percentage (37.3%) of typhoid fever was recorded at age group 21–30 years and the less prevalence was at age group more than 51 years (29%) (p=0.4036). No significant differences was found in frequency of typhoid fever in males (35.4%) and females (35.5%) (p=0.9387). The incidence of typhoid fever in June (39%) was significantly higher than the incidence rate in other months of the year (p=0.0086). Typhoid fever has a considerable challenge to public health. The age group 21-30 years is the vulnerable group for typhoid fever. The typhoid fever is independent of sex and it is a seasonal disease with the majority of cases occurring is the June. Awareness should be created in young generation related to polluted water and hygienic food to eradicate this particular infection. Hence, health education classes play an important role in to reduce the infection rate.


Science Journal of University of Zakho (Issue : 1) (Volume : 5)
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most adaptable human pathogens. Nasal Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of community associated staphylococcal infections. This project aimed to study the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility tests among primary school children at Zakho city, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Nasal swabs were taken from a total of 300 primary school pupils aged 8-12 years. Collected nasal swabs were processed according to the standard bacteriological culture and isolates were identified using mannitol fermentation, gram stain, catalase test and coagulase test. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out on Muller-Hinton agar (MHA) to determine the susceptibility of S. aureus and CA-MRSA towards antibiotics. 30% (90/300) of the primary school children carried S. aureus. The nasal carriage of MRSA was 4% (12/300) among participants. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, doxycycline, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. This study showed that the incidence of S. aureus and CA-MRSA is comparable with reports from elsewhere. Measures are needed to keep the emergence and transmission of these pathogens to a lowest. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of all S. aureus isolates is crucial for treatment of MRSA. Further studies are required to detect the risk factors of the acquisition of MRSA.

Prevalence and molecular characterization of extended spectrum beta-Lactamases-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated in Zakho, Iraq

Journal of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (Issue : 4) (Volume : 6)
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli are the most important group of microorganisms responsible for urinary tract infection. A high percentage of uropathogenic E. coli over the world are detected to be ESBLs producers, which is now a problem that limits therapeutic options. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of ESBLs E. coli and study the prevalence of different ESBLs genotype patterns among the ESBLs producing isolates. Methods: One hundred and six uropathogenic E. coli isolates were analyzed for their ESBL production by molecular methods. Results: 55 (52%) isolates were detected as extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producers. Based on the PCR results, all E. coli isolates possessed one or more ESBL gene. CTX-M type ESBL was the most dominant ESBL (87.2%) among the isolates. While those for TEM-type and SHV-type were 54.5% and 21.8% respectively. Six genotype patterns were detected (TEM, CTX-M, TEM+SHV, TEM+CTX-M, SHV+CTX-M and TEM+SHV+CTX-M). The genotype CTX-M was the most prevalent genotype (40%) followed by the genotype TEM+CTX-M combination (30.9%). The occurrences of the genotypes (TEM, TEM+SHV, SHV+CTX-M and TEM+SHV+CTX-M) were 7.3%, 5.5%, 5.4%, 10.9%, respectively.

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogenic E. coli among people in Zakho, Iraq

International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences (Issue : 4) (Volume : 4)
Antimicrobial resistance in uropathogenic E. coli is of major concern worldwide due to its increasing resistance to several commonly prescribed antibiotics. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and to evaluate the presence and antibiogram pattern of uropathogenic E. coli among people in Zakho city, Iraq. Methods: 1120 urine samples were collected from people. Samples were screened for E. coli isolates and their susceptibility to different antibiotics was analyzed. Results: Diagnoses tests showed that only 106 (9.4%) isolates were E. coli. Females (90, 85%) were more susceptible to urinary tract infections (UTIs) than males (16, 15%) (p <0.05). The age 11-21 years old (23, 21.7%) was the most affected group (p <0.05). All isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin and aztreonam. While, all these isolates were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Conclusions: The incidence of uropathogenic E. coli among people is comparable with reports from elsewhere. E. coli isolates are highly susceptible towards imipenem, and meropenem antibiotics, and highly resistant towards β-lactam and cephalosporins antibiotics. Education programs and improving the hygienic measures are necessary to prevent contaminations with E. coli and minimize the use of β-lactam and cephalosporin antibiotics. Keywords: Uropathogens, E. coli, Antimicrobial resistance, Iraq.