Published Journal Articles
EVALUATION OF CRUDE OILS AND NATURAL GASES OF KURDISTAN-IRAQ BY CATALYTIC IMPROVEMENTS TO LIGHTER OILS USING LOCAL CLAYS
Ecology and the Environment (Issue : 81) (Volume : 222)
The chemical and physical properties of three different crude oils and two natural gas wells in Kurdistan-Iraq have been studied according to American Standard Test Method (ASTM) methods. Auto-distillations have been used to determine the changes in each cut, and gas–liquid chromatography has been used to find the approximate chemical constituents. A distribution diagram of paraffin, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons has been created. The gasoline cuts for each crude oil have been examined to find suitable octane additives (oxygenated or metal organic). The octane number increases as a function of the amount of additives, which has been plotted. A correlation between the trace metals and the types of hydrocarbons has been carried out for each crude oil. The improvement of these crude oils is achieved catalytically by reactions at high temperatures using different local clays, which gave us increases in lighter molecules by 7% (max). Chemical reactions are suggested for this improvement. X-ray analysis is also performed for each clay. Research is carried out on one gas–liquid well (Khor Mor) and another pure natural gas well. Gas chromatography analysis for Khor Mor shows 51% C1– C5 and 49% C6–C11, while other natural gas wells contain 98% methane. The natural gas of the Kirkuk wells contained approximately 10–12% hydrogen sulfide, which we separated using ethanolamines, and converted to hydrogen fuel and sulfur at two pilot plants using a new catalyst instead of the previous Clause process, producing about 143 tons of hydrogen per day.
Semi-automated continuous sample drop flow microextraction with swift preconcentration and atomic absorption spectrometry determination of lead in water and apple leaves
Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society (Issue : 10) (Volume : 3)
In this paper, we present novel developments to our recently developed method so-called “continuous sample drop flow microextraction (CSDF-ME)” technique. Previously, we showed that the CSDF-ME technique offers several advantages, including stability of extraction solvent, no need for holder device, and easy to operate. The merit of current study is to make the extraction steps faster with sample required for the analysis. The key novelty of proposed method includes usage of a solvent mixture (i.e., methanol and carbon disulfide), allowing to pump aqueous samples with a higher flow rate than the former technique which led to reduce the extraction time. Results show that the technique is cable to become faster by five times with an enrichment factor of 93 for 4.0 mL of aqueous sample. The linear range and limit of detection for Pb are found to be 0.1–6.0 and 0.03 µg L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviation for determination of 1.0 µg L−1 of Pb in a sample is 2.9% (n=5). Furthermore, the relative recoveries of the developed CSDF-ME method for Pb in tap water, mineral water, and Standard Reference Material for apple leaves (1515) are shown to be 98, 100, and 94%, respectively.
FIRST DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF IRON AND CALCIUM USING BROMOPYROGALLOL RED.
International Journal of Advanced Research 5(8), 1686-1691 (Issue : 8) (Volume : 5)
Bromopyrogallol Red (BPR) as analytical reagent has been used for simultaneous determination of iron and calcium using first-derivative spectrophotometry. The zero - crossing technique was employed using first-derivative for Fe-BPR and Ca-BPR at 600 nm and 558 nm respectively. The linear relationship for Fe and Ca determination obeys beer's law from 0.2-1.2 µg/ml and 0.2-1.0 µg/ml respectively. The proposed method should be useful for accurate, precise, and rapid determination of iron and calcium in various samples with percentage recovery of about 101%. The stability constants (mean of three values) were found to be 1.33×108L2.mol-2 and 9.13 × 1011 L2mol-2 for Fe-BPR and Ca-BPR complexes respectively which indicates that the complexes are stable
Building a Visible Light Spectrophotometer From NaI Detector
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences 2(2): 1-7, 2017; Article no.AJOCS.32418 (Issue : 2) (Volume : 2)
A fluorescence spectrometer is used in the Measurement of a broad range of applications. The main parts of spectrometers are the photocathode connected to photomultiplier and the multichannel scalar (MCS) for Lifetime Measurements in Nanosecond to Seconds Range and multichannel analyzer (MCA) for the intensity and wavelength of UV/V light. There is a wide range of sensors for light sensing applications: from a photomultiplier tube which gives a large voltage pulse for every photon it detects, to cooled thermopiles that absorb kilowatts of power. The aim of this work is to develop and introduce Single Photon Detector as fluorescence spectrometer and chemiluminescence kinetics. For this purpose, the NaI crystal is removed gently from the detector cavity, used in gamma spectroscopy, so that the bare photocathode remained sealed to the photomultiplier. The capability of the system is mainly dependent on the sensitivity of the photocathode. The system is investigated to find a calibration curve of standard solutions. First, Original Research Article Abdullah et al.; AJOCS, 2(2): 1-7, 2017; Article no.AJOCS.32418 2 applying UV/V atomic absorption spectroscopy and measuring the time course of fluorescence signal from chemiluminescence absorbance. The results obtained are very encouraging to move forward towered more applications.
FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE WITH PEROXYOXALATE CHEMILUMINESCENCE DETECTION
Sience Journal of University of Zakho Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 88 –92, March-2017 (Issue : 1) (Volume : 5)
This study reports a new, rapid and sensitive flow injection analysis (FIA) with peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence detection (POCL) for determination of hydrogen peroxide through merging zone principle. Di (N-Succinimidyl) oxalate was applied for the first time as peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence reagent. The CL was produced by the oxidation of Di (N-Succinimidyl) oxalate by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a fluorescent compound, (9, 10 Bis phenyl ethynyl anthracene) and imidazole as a catalyst. Various parameters associated with this flow system were studied and essential optimizations were carried out. Calibration graph was constructed for determination of hydrogen peroxide in the range (0.02-0.34 mol.L–1) with correlation coefficient (R2) (0.982).The method was applied successfully for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in commercial pharmaceutical products and in tap water.
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHOTOCATALYTIC PERFORMANCE OF RUTILE-TIO2 NANOROD ARRAYS FOR SOLAR HYDROGEN GENERATION
Science Journal of University of zakho (Issue : 1) (Volume : 5)
Single crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorods (TNRs) films have been grown on the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using a one pot hydrothermal method, have attracted great attention because of favorable applications in the photoelectrochemical water splitting system. The effect of the reaction conditions on the morphology, crystal orientation and photocatalytic activity has been systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that two diffraction peaks at 36.3° and 63.2° correspond to the (101) and (002) planes of the tetragonal rutile TiO2 nanorod, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the samples indicates that the TiO2 array surface morphology and orientation are highly dependent on the reaction parameters, such as temperature, reaction time and the titanium precursor concentration. In a typical condition of the hydrothermal method at 0.3ml of TBO and 160°C for 3 hr, a small diameter and short length 190 nm and 2.2 µm of TiO2 nanorods respectively, are grown on florien doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. When synthesized TiO2 nanorods photocatalyst was irradiated under illumination of simulated AM 1.5G solar light (100 mW cm−2) achieves an overall Photocurrent density of 1.80 mA/cm2 with a maximum photoconversion efficiency of ~1.6%. The results suggest that these dense and aligned one-dimensional TiO2 nanorods are promising for hydrogen generation from water splitting based on PEC cells.
Design and construction of electrochemical selective sensors for copper(II) in water samples based on C18H18N6S2 and C4H8O4S2 Dithio ligands as neutral carriers
International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences (Issue : 12) (Volume : 3)
Dithio based chelating ionophores such as 1-anilino-6-(3, 4-xylyl)-2, 5- dithiobiurea (A) and Dithiodiglycolic acid (B) were used as active components of PVC membrane electrode and explored as Cu2+-ion selective electrodes. The membranes having the composition (A): o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE): polyvinyl chloride (PVC): potassium tetrakis(4- chlorophenyl) borate (KTpCIPB) in the ratio of 3: 78: 40: 2 (w/w; mg) and (B): (o-NPOE): (PVC): (KTpCIPB) in the ration 3 :80 :40 :3 are found to be exhibiting the best sensor characteristics. The fabricated sensors exhibited Nernstain response (29.301 and 28.223 mV decade-1) over concentration ranges of 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 ×10-1 mol/L and 1.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 ×10-1 mol/L and exhibit detection limit of 2.2 × 10-8 and 8.3 × 10-7 mol /L for sensor No. 9 and 6 for ionophores A and B, respectively. The best performances were observed with the sensor having the composition of (A): (o-NPOE): (PVC): (KTpCIPB) in the ratio of 3: 78: 40: 2 (w/w; mg), and the electrodes have a response time of 9 - 12 s with a pH range of 3.0 - 7.0, and could be used over a period of 3 months without any significant deviation in its potentiometric characteristics. The analytical usefulness of the proposed sensor has been evaluated by its application in the determination of copper in water samples, the results obtained by the proposed ISEs are in good agreement with the results obtained by direct flame AAS method. The sensor No. 9 has been used also in the potentiometric titration of Cu2+ with EDTA.
DETERMINATION OF THERMODYNAMIC STABILITY CONSTANTS FOR 1:1 COMPLEXES OF CU(LL) WITH 2-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACIDS IN AQUEOUS MEDIA USING CU(II) ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODE
Academic Journal of Science (Issue : 2) (Volume : 2)
A systematic study for the effect of substituents on the thermodynamic stability constant of 1:1 complexes of Cu(ll) with six monosubstituted 2-hydroxybenzoic acids was carried out in aqueous media (deionized water) using Cu(II) ion selective electrode [ Cu(ll) ISE ]. Calibration of the electrode with standard solutions of Cu(II) perchlorate ( 10-2 to 10-6 mol/dm3) using the standard double junction silver / silver chloride reference electrode gave the best Nernstian response ( correlation of emf with pCu ). The test solutions [ containing Cu(ll) ions, ligand and base] were prepared and the equilibrium cell emf for each solution was measured at five temperature. For best precision, optimum conditions were selected (for each test solution) to give a sufficiently higher potential [higher free Cu(ll) activity] than that of the detection limit of the electrode. The equilibrium hydrogen ion concentrations of the test solutions were calculated from the electroneutrality principle and compared with that obtained from measured pH at 25°C. The data (various concentrations used in each test solution and measured emf) were fed into computer programs to perform all the calculations needed as well as those for thermodynamic stability constants and thermodynamic functions G°, H°, and S°. The high negative values of G° indicate that the complexing process is spontaneous and stable. The negative values of S° show that entropy is not in favor of the reaction to form the complex. However, the highly negative values of H° indicate that enthalpy is the strong driving force for the formation of the complexes. A thermodynamic treatment for the substitution has been presented and a correlation between logS (where S is the stability constant of the complex) and pK2 (where K2 is the second ionization constant of the acid) gave a good straight line whose correlation coefficient, slope, intercept and standard deviation in logS are 0.994, 0.8005±0.044, 2.1454±0.575 and 0.00109 respectively. Since the slope is 0.8005, it is concluded that substitution affects the Cu(ll) ion in these complexes to become as a -electron doner.
FIA-CL DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL USING LUMINOL– KMNO4–PB POST-CL SYSTEM, APPLYING MERGING ZONE PRINCIPLE
Journal of University of Zakho (Issue : 2) (Volume : 1)
This paper reports a new and simple flow injection analysis (FIA) with post- chemiluminescence system (PCL) for determination of paracetamol through merging zone principle. The method was based on the inhibition of luminol– KMnO4–Pb post- chemiluminescence (PCL).Various parameters associated with this flow system were studied and essential optimizations were carried out. Calibration graph were constructed for determination of paracetamol in the range (5.0–30) μg.ml-1 with correlation coefficient (0.996) .The method was applied successfully for the determination of paracetamol in commercial pharmaceutical products.