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Published Journal Articles


The Incidence of Scabies and Head lice and Their Associated Risk Factors among Displaced people in Chem Mishko Camp, Zakho city, Duhok provice, Iraq

Polish Journal of Microbiology (Issue : 2544) (Volume : 69)
This study was conducted to estimate the incidence and the effects of associated risk factors of scabies and head lice on displaced people in Cham Mishko camp, Zakho city, Duhok Province, Iraq. The study included 1300 internally displaced people (IDPs) who visited the dermatology clinic and health care center in Cham Mishko camp from January 2018 to December 2019. Participants' bio-information was collected on special questionnaire form after receiving permission from the camp's health authorities and verbal consent from the participants. Monthly weather data were collected from Duhok Directorate of Meteorology and Seismology. The total rate of ectoparasites was 81.2% (45% for scabies and 36.2% for head lice). Ages from 1-10, 21-30, and 31-40 years showed the highest rates with scabies (48.1%, 46.7% and 46.1%, respectively), while the highest rates of head pediculosis were at ages from 1-10 and 11-20 years (40% and 36.6%, respectively). Scabies rate was slightly higher in males than females (46.6% vs. 43.4%), while the rate of head pediculosis was significantly higher in females than males (58.2% vs. 13.9%). Families with more than ten people showed the highest rates of scabies and head pediculosis (49.5% and 74.5%). Scabies was more common in cold months than in summer while head pediculosis was more common in hot months. The number of scabies and head pediculosis cases increased by 123 and 85 cases, respectively, in 2019. It is inferred that the effects of scabies and head pediculosis in IDPs will be considerable, with a higher carriage rate than other studies in Iraq.

Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among women of childbearing age in Zakho City, Kurdistan Region/Iraq

ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (Issue : 2218) (Volume : 32)
Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. That makes serious health problems among immunocompromised patients which comprise pregnant women as well. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies among women of childbearing age and their associations to some demographic factors in Zakho City, Kurdistan Region/Iraq. Blood samples were collected randomly from 630 women aged 15-45 which were divided into subgroups (15-20), (21-26), (27-32), (33-38) and (39-45) years after taking their consent for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. A special questioner sheet was designed for the study containing full information about each participant. The diagnoses were done using ELISA-IgG and IgM kits and Rapid Test (RT) method. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was 78/630 (12.38 %), including 73 (11.58 %) for ELISA IgG, 4 (0.63 %) for ELISA IgM and 1 (0.15 %) for RT method. The age group 33-38 years and married females showed the highest seroprevalence of 19/93 (20.43 %), 67/535 (12.52 %), respectively using ELISA IgG. Statically there were significant relations regarding ages, educational status, contact with cats and consumption of undercooked meat. This investigation indicated that the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies among women at childbearing age is still a high rate. Furthermore, the association of some risk factors must be taken into consideration and this requires the introduction of health education programs to the community.

Seroprevalence and some Demographic Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Male Population in Duhok Province/Iraq

Baghdad Science Journal (Issue : 2078) (Volume : 17)
The present study aims to investigate the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma gondii infection and its relation to some demographic factors among males in Duhok province/Iraq. A total of 424 random blood samples were collected from the male population of different ages (18-60) years and different social-economic classes. Out of 424 samples examined, 108 (25.47%) were seropositive to the anti- T. gondii antibodies; 88 (20.75%) were found seropositive for IgG, while 20 (4.72%) samples were seropositive for IgM. Regarding occupation, the highest percentage for chronic toxoplasmosis was reported in workers followed by policemen and pensioners at rates of 23.96%, 23.6%, and 23.07%, respectively. The age group 18-30 years showed the highest seropositive rate which was 26.6%; the seropositivity rate decreased with the increase of age. Regarding the blood groups, the highest percentage of IgG was reported in both O+ and B- groups, which were 23.2% and 23.1%, respectively. The higher rate of seropositivity was observed among married males (21.32%) as compared to unmarried males (19.05%) and fertile (22.3%) versus sterile males (12.5%). Concerning IgM antibodies, the highest seropositivity (9.4%) was reported in infertile males. The results of this study showed the importance of demographic factors to the epidemiology of T. gondii in males, which support the role of public health in the control of infectious diseases.

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Displaced People Living In Displacement Camps in Duhok Province/Iraq

The Internet Journal of Microbiology (Volume : 17)
Aim: Displaced people living in camps are at risk of infection with different types of pathogens, including parasites. Parasitic infection is not only considered to be a public health hazard but also causes significant morbidity and mortality in children and adults. To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites (protozoa and helminths) among displaced people living in the displacement camps. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 3925 stool samples were taken from displaced people of both sex and different ages after receiving permission from the camps’ health authorities and verbal consent from the enrolled people. The study covered five camps of internally displaced people (IDPs) in Duhok governorate/Iraqi Kurdistan between August 2016 and May 2017. The prevalence rates of protozoa and helminths were presented in number and percentage. Results: The study showed that out of the total 3925 persons, 229 individuals (5.83%) were infected by intestinal parasites, including protozoa (95.20%) and helminths (4.80%). The recorded parasites and their prevalence rates were: Entamoeba histolytica (69.87%), Giardia lamblia (17.47%), Blastocyst hominis (7.86%), E. vermicularis (3.49%), H. nana (0.44%), and Egg of Taenia spp. (0.87%). The prevalence rate with various intestinal parasites was higher among males, and it was inversely proportional to age. Furthermore, people with a low level of education showed a higher prevalence rate. Conclusions: The present study suggests that the IDPs in camps are at risk of intestinal parasites infections regardless of sex and age.

The Prevalence of Ectoparasites among Displaced People Living in Displaced Camps: Duhok province, Kurdistan/ Iraq

International Journal of Psychosoial Rehabilitation (Issue : 4) (Volume : 24)
Background: Displaced people are susceptible to the same diseases including parasitic diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasites (scabies and pediculosis) among displaced people living in displacement camps in Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan. Methods: A total of 3,925 displaced people from five camps around the city of Duhok were included in the study. These individuals included males and females ages 8 months–60 years. The subjects were clinically examined in the camps’ health centers for the presence of ectoparasites, certain types of skin lesions, and a rash suggestive of scabies. For head lice, screening was performed by examining the scalp for lice and nits. The obtained information was subsequently recorded in a pre-designed anonymous questionnaire. Results: Out of the 3,925 total subjects who were examined, 672 (17.12%) were found to be infested with ectoparasites: 395 with scabies (10.06%; Females: 210, Males: 185), and 277 with pediculosis (7.05%; Females: 182, Males: 95). The highest rates of infestation, both scabies and pediculosis, were found in Domize1 camp (5.15%; 2.93% for scabies and 2.21% for pediculosis). Females showed a slightly higher prevalence than males (53.25% versus 46.75%, respectively). The highest prevalence of scabies was observed in the age group 11–20 years (27.84%) and of pediculosis in the age group 1–10 years (45.85%). Subjects with a primary school education level had higher prevalence rates of scabies and pediculosis (38.50% and 54.15%, respectively). Conclusions: This study showed that ecto-parasite in displaced people in prevalent in this region.

Molecular Characterization of Some Virulence Genes and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern among Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Patient in Zakho City/Iraq

ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (Issue : 2218) (Volume : 32)
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is one of the most causative agents which causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. This study involved the prevalence of the virulence genes among UPEC isolated from patients in various hospitals in Zakho city from July 2018 until January 2019 and their susceptibility to different commonly used antimicrobial agent against UPEC. The different culture media were used for the identification of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Out of 400 samples, 141 (35.25%) strains of UPEC were isolated from enrolled patients. The antibiotic susceptibility toward different antibiotics was varied among the isolates. Imipenem was the most potent antibiotic with a resistant rate of only 2.84%. While the isolates were resistant to most screened antibiotics, with the highest rate 96.45% to Amoxicillin/ clavulanic. The resistant rates decreased toward other antibiotics at rates varied from 93.62% for Amoxicillin to 43.97% for Norfloxacin. Fifty-seven isolates were selected for PCR analysis, according to the resistance of E.coli to various antibiotics. The selected samples were successfully amplified for E. coli identification by producing a single band of a target uidA gene. In this study, the virulence related genes were detected in only 35 (61.40%) isolates out of 57 isolates. The distribution of the virulence related genes that included; afa, sfa, hly, cnf and pai were 28.07%, 17.54%, 26.32%, 22.81% and 22.81%, respectively. The study highlight that multidrug resistance UPEC harbors multiple virulence genes circulating in this setting.

Seroprevalence and some demographic factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection among female population in Duhok province, Iraq

International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences (Issue : 2320) (Volume : 8)
Background: The causative agent of toxoplasmosis is Toxoplasma gondii which is an intracellular protozoan. It has an important role in abortion and congenital diseases in pregnant women, which lead to infant's defectiveness birth when pregnant, are exposed during pregnancy. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most prevalent and most successful parasitic infectious disease worldwide, due to its efficient transmission through the ingestion of tissue cysts in undercooked and infected meat, or the ingestion of oocysts in contaminated vegetables and water. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence rate of anti-Toxoplasma gondii Abs and their relation to some demographic factors among females, in Duhok province/ Kurdistan Region/ Iraq. Methods: During the period from October 2016 to November 2017, a total of 792 random blood samples were collected from the female population of different ages (16-55) years and various socioeconomic classes, who attended Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Azadi teaching hospital and Central Public Health Laboratory/ Duhok. Results: Out of 792 samples examined, 288 (36.3%) were seropositive from which 282 (35.61%) were found seropositive for IgG, while only six samples (0.76%) were seropositive for IgM. Regarding to occupation, the highest rate for chronic toxoplasmosis was reported in housewives followed by employed and students at rates of 40.19%, 22.3%, and 14.0%, respectively. These outcomes were statistically significant (p<0.05). The age group 36-45 years showed the highest seropositive rate for both IgG and IgM Abs which were 41.02% and 1.28%, respectively, which was statistically non-significant. The higher rate of seropositivity was observed among married females 39.93%, and pregnant 41.9% versus non-pregnant 33.3%. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05) among married while non-significant in pregnant. Concerning to blood groups, the highest rate of seropositivity was reported among females with blood group AB+ which was 60% followed by group O- which was 46.7 %. This difference was statistically non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusions: This study showed the importance of demographic factors to the epidemiology of T. gondii in females, which support the role of public health in the control of infectious diseases.

Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from Stray Cats by Multilocus RCR-RFLP Techniques in Erbil city- Kurdistan Region/Iraq

Journal of Physics: conference Series
In this study, ten multilocus PCR-RFLP markers were used for genotyping of T. gondii in six cats;that were seropositive by MAT test. These markers include SAG1, SAG2 (5-SAG2, 3-SAG2 and Alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. Eight T. gondii reference strains (GT1, PTG, CTG, TgCgCa1, MAS,TgCatBr5, TgCatBr64 and TgToucan) were used as positive controls for genotyping. Sample A20-1 was type III by one marker (GRA6), while sample A9-2 was type III by four markers (SAG3, BTUB, c22-8 and c29-2) and sample A20-2 was type III by four markers (SAG1, SAG3, BTUB and c29-2). Hence, it could be concluded that the strain of T. gondii in Kurdistan stray cats is likely the type III.